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Wheat/Gluten Proteome Reactivity & Autoimmunity Profile

Measuring a patient’s immune response to an array of the wheat proteome increases the sensitivity and specificity, and will provide greater confidence in formulation of a diagnosis that allows for better patient compliance with a gluten-free diet.

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Description

Wheat/Gluten Proteome Reactivity & Autoimmunity Profile

Gluten-Reactivity is a systemic autoimmune disease with diverse manifestations. Celiac disease (CD) or gluten-sensitive enteropathy, is only one aspect of a range of possible manifestations of reactivity to gluten. And yet, this enteropathy, “one of the most common lifelong disorders in both the U.S. and Europe,” receives the lion’s share of focus to the point of ignoring other manifestations. Autoimmune disease, the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world, is 10 times more common in a gluten-sensitive enteropathy than in the general population. Thus, the burden on society from Gluten-Reactivity cannot be overestimated. Earlier detection might result in earlier treatment, better quality of life, and an improved prognosis for these patients.

The emphasis on Celiac disease as the main manifestation of Gluten-Reactivity has been questioned. It is now accepted that Gluten-Reactivity is a systemic illness that can manifest in a range of organ systems. Such manifestations can occur independently of the presence of the classic small-bowel lesion that defines CD. That Gluten-Reactivity is regarded as principally a disease of the small bowel is a historical misconception.

Gluten-Reactivity has been proposed to include not only CD, but also non-celiac gluten sensitive (NCGS) patients without mucosal lesions. From the skin (Dermatitis Herpetiformis, Psoriatic arthritis, Alopecia areata, Dermatomyositis, Cutaneous vasculitis), to the muscles (inflammatory myopathies), to the brain (Gluten Ataxia, altered neurotransmitter production, Schizophrenia, peripheral neuralgias, idiopathic neuropathies) and beyond, pathology to gluten exposure can occur in multiple systems without evidence of an enteropathy.

Current testing for Gluten-Reactivity and (CD) includes serum IgG and IgA against gliadin and tissue transglutaminase-2 (tTG2). These antibodies are measured against minor components of a wheat protein called alpha-gliadin. However, wheat consists of multiple proteins and peptides including, alpha-gliadin, alpha-beta-gliadin, omega-gliadin, low- and high-molecular weight glutenins, gluteomorphin, prodynorphin, farinin, serpin, amylases, globulins, albumins, agglutinins and more. Any of these antigens has a capacity to challenge the immune system. Because of this heterogeneity of gluten proteins and peptides, multiple variations in T-cell responses may occur against them. Recent medical research indicates that a large number of gluten epitopes, may be implicated in the development of Gluten-Reactivity, CD and other associated conditions such as non-celiac wheat reactivity (NCWR).

Measuring a patient’s immune response to an array of the wheat proteome increases the sensitivity and specificity, and will provide greater confidence in formulation of a diagnosis that allows for better patient compliance with a gluten-free diet.

Wheat/Gluten Proteome Reactivity and Autoimmunity Profile can be used to:

• Identify possible Celiac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, non-celiac wheat sensitivity, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia or other wheat/gluten-related disorder.

• Assess autoimmune reactivity associated with wheat proteins and peptides.

Assessing wheat/gluten reactivity and intestinal autoimmunity is recommended for patients who:

• Have non-responsive GI symptoms.

• Present multiple-symptom complaints (including Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Fibromyalgia).

• Suffer from early symptoms of autoimmunities including neuro-autoimmunity.

This profile should be considered for those who suffer from wheat-related disorders:

* Thyroiditis
* Arthritis
* Myocarditis
* Dermatitis
* Endocrinopathy

* Polyendocrinopathy
* Osteoarthritis
* Pernicious anemia
* Irritable bowel syndrome

* Crohn’s disease
* Ulcerative colitis
* Others

Clinical Interpretation of Results:

When IgA reactions are predominant, it is an indication of possible Celiac disease and other autoimmunities.

When IgG reactions are predominant, it is an indication of wheat/gluten immune response and possible autoimmunity due to lack of digestive enzymes and/or other factors.

When both IgA and IgG reactions occur, it is an indication of wheat/gluten immune response and its progression to Celiac disease and/or other autoimmune disorders.

By itself, this profile is not diagnostic for any condition or disease. It can be used in conjunction with other pertinent clinical information in the formation of a diagnosis.